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What types of guide rails are mainly used in the machine tool industry

Machine tool manufacturers will make great efforts to ensure the accuracy of guide rail installation. Before the guide rail is processed, the guide rail and accessories in operation have already been supercooled to remove the internal stress. In order to ensure the accuracy of the guide rail and extend the service life, chipping is a common process.

1. Linear guideway

The new guide rail system enables the machine tool to obtain rapid feed speed. Under the same spindle speed, rapid feed is the characteristic of linear guide rail. Like the plane guide rail, the linear guide rail has two basic components; One as a guide is a fixed element, and the other is a movable element. In order to ensure the accuracy of the machine tool, a small amount of chipping on the bed or column is indispensable. Generally, the installation is very simple. There is no intermediate material between the moving element and the fixed element of the linear guide rail, but a rolling steel ball is used. As the rolling steel ball is integrated into high-speed movement, with small friction resistance and high sensitivity, the working standards of moving accessories, such as tool rest and support plate of machine tool, are considered.

If the working time is too long, the steel ball begins to be damaged, and the preload on the steel ball begins to weaken, resulting in the reduction of the motion accuracy of accessories during the operation of the machine tool. If you want to maintain the original accuracy, be sure to replace the guide rail bracket, or even replace the guide rail. If the guide rail system has preloading effect. The system accuracy has been lost. The * method is to replace the rolling element.

2. Linear ball guide

Linear roller guide rail system is composed of plane guide rail and linear roller guide rail. Rollers are installed on the parallel guide rail, and rollers are used to replace the moving accessories of steel ball bearing machine tools. The advantages are large touching area, large bearing load and high sensitivity. From the end of the bed, the support frame and roller are placed on the wall top and side of the plane guide rail to obtain high precision. A wedge is set between the accessories and the support frame during the operation of the machine tool to make the preloading effect on the side of the support frame.

The principle of wedge plate is similar to that of inclined iron. The net weight of accessories acts on the top surface of the support frame during operation. Because the preload on the guide rail system is adjustable, the damage of the wedge is compensated. This feature is widely used on small and medium-sized or large and medium-sized machine tools because it is sensitive to CNC commands and bears a large load. The linear roller guide rail system can withstand high-speed operation compared with the traditional flat guide function, improving the characteristics of the machine tool.

3. Steel inlaid guide rail

The most common guideway on machine tools is steel inlaid guideway, which has been used for a long time. The steel inlaid guide rail is a fixed component of the guide rail system, and its cross section is rectangular. It can be installed horizontally on the bed of the machine tool, and can also be integrated with the bed. They are called steel inlaid type or integrated type respectively. The steel inlaid guide rail is made of steel, hardened and cut.

The strength is above 60 degrees of Rockwell hardness. Stick the steel inlaid guide rail with screws or adhesive (epoxy resin glue) on the machine bed or the mutual matching surface of the scraped vertical rod to ensure that the guide rail has a * flatness. This kind of method is convenient and simple for maintenance and replacement, and is very popular with maintenance workers.

4. Sliding guide rail

The development trend of the traditional guide rail is mainly reflected in the sliding element and the guide rail mode. The characteristic of the sliding guide rail is that the material is applied between the guide rail and the sliding part. The different modes depend on the selection of different materials. Hydraulic presses are commonly used in many guideway systems.

The hydrostatic guide rail is one of them. Under the working pressure, the gear oil enters the pipe trench of the sliding element and generates an oil film between the guide rail and the sliding element, separating the guide rail and the moving element, which greatly reduces the sliding friction of the moving element. Hydrostatic guideway is very reasonable for heavy load and can compensate for axial force load.

Another way of using oil as material is the dynamic pressure guide rail. The difference between the dynamic pressure guide rail and the static pressure guide rail is that oil does not work under working pressure. It prevents direct contact between moving elements and guide rail through oil viscosity. The advantage is to save hydraulic pump.

Gas can also be used to move materials between components and guide rails. There are also two ways, pneumatic static pressure guide rail and pneumatic dynamic pressure guide rail. The principle is the same as that of hydraulic press guide rail.